盾构法

第一节  盾构施工概况

一.盾构法基本概念

盾构法是在地面下暗挖隧道的一种施工方法。当代城市建筑、公用设施和各种交通日益繁杂,市区明挖隧道施工,对城市生活的干扰问题日趋严重,特别在市区中心遇到隧道埋深较大,地质复杂的情况,若用明挖法建造隧道则很难实现。在这种条件下采用盾构法对城市地下铁道、上下水道、电力通讯、市政公用设施等各种隧道建设具有明显优点。此外,在建造穿越水域、沼泽地和山地的公路和铁路隧道或水工隧道中,盾构法也往往因它在特定条件下的经济合理性及技术方面的优势而得到采用。

盾构法施工的概貌如图1所示。构成盾构法施工的主要内容是:先在隧道某段的一端建造竖井或基坑,以供盾构安装就位。盾构从竖井或基坑的墙壁开孔处出发,在地层中沿着设计轴线,向另一竖井或基坑的设计孔洞推进。盾构推进中所受到的地层阻力,通过盾构千斤顶传至盾构尾部已拼装的预制隧道衬砌结构,再传到竖井或基坑的后靠壁上,盾构是这种施工方法中最主要的独特的施工机具。它是一个能支承地层压力而又能在地层中推进的圆形或矩形或马蹄形等特殊形状的钢筒结构,在钢筒的前面设置各种类型的支撑和开挖土体的装置,在钢筒中段周圈内面安装顶进所需的千斤顶,钢筒尾部是具有一定空间的壳体,在盾尾内可以拼装一至二环预制的隧道衬砌环。盾构每推进一环距离,就在盾尾支护下拼装一环衬砌,并及时向紧靠盾尾后面的开挖坑道周边与衬砌环外周之间的空隙中压注足够的浆体,以防止隧道及地面下沉。在盾构推进过程中不断从开挖面排出适量的土方。

使用盾构法,往往需要根据穿越土层的工程地质水文地质特点辅以其他施工技术措施。主要有:

1. 疏干掘进土层中地下水的措施;

2. 稳定地层、防止隧道及地面沉陷的土壤加固措施;

3. 隧道衬砌的防水堵漏技术;

4. 配合施工的监测技术;

5. 气压施工中的劳动防护措施;

6. 开挖土方的运输及处理方法等。

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图1 盾构施工概貌

1-盾构;2-盾构千斤顶;3-盾构正面网格;4-出土转盘;5-出土皮带运输机;6-管片拼装机;

7-管片;8-压浆泵;9-压浆孔;10-出土机;11-由管片组成的隧道衬砌结构;12-在盾尾空隙的压浆;13-后盾管片;14-竖井。

    盾构法是一种安全而有效的施工法,但不是万能施工法。为此有必要充分掌握盾构施工法的特点。

二.盾构法的主要优点

1. 除竖井施工外,施工作业均在地下进行,噪音、振动引起的公害小,既不影响地面交通,又可减少对附近居民的噪音和振动影响。

2. 盾构推进、出土、拼装衬砌等主要工序循环进行,施工易于管理,施工人员也较少,劳动强度低,生产效率高。

3. 土方量外运较少。

4. 穿越河道时不影响航运。

5. 施工不受风雨等气候条件影响。

6. 隧道的施工费用不受覆土量多少影响,适宜于建造覆土较深的隧道。在土质差水位高的地方建设埋深较大的隧道,盾构法有较好的技术经济优越性。

7. 当隧道穿过河底或其他建筑物时,不影响施工。

8. 只要设法使盾构的开挖面稳定,则隧道越深、地基越差、土中影响施工的埋设物等越多,与明挖法相比,经济上、施工、进度上越有利。

三.盾构法存在的不足

1. 当隧道曲线半径过小时,施工较为困难。

2. 在陆地建造隧道时,如隧道覆土太浅,开挖面稳定甚为困难,甚至不能施工,而在水下时,如覆土太浅则盾构法施工不够安全,要确保一定厚度的覆土。

3. 竖井中长期有噪声和振动,要有解决的措施。

4. 盾构施工中采用全气压方法以疏干和稳定地层时,对劳动保护要求较高,施工条件差。

5. 盾构法隧道上方一定范围内的地表沉陷尚难完全防止,特别在饱和含水松软的土层中,要采取严密的技术措施才能把沉陷限制在很小的限度内,目前还不能完全防止以盾构正上方为中心土层的地表沉降。

6. 在饱和含水地层中,盾构法施工所用的拼装衬砌,对达到整体结构防水性的技术要求较高。

7. 用气压施工时,在周围有发生缺氧和枯井的危险,必须采取相应的办法。

第二节  盾构法隧道的发展历史

一.国外盾构法隧道的发展历史

盾构施工技术自1823年由布鲁诺尔首创于英国伦敦的泰晤土河的水底隧道工程以来,已有170余年的历史。在这170余年的风风雨雨中,经过几代人的努力,盾构法已从一种只能在极少数欧美发达国家中才见应用的特殊技术,发展成为在发达国家中极为普通,在发展中国家中亦逐渐得到应用的隧道施工技术。

据说最早发明盾构法的思路是来自发明者的一个有趣的发现,英国的布鲁诺尔发现船的木板中,有一种蛀虫钻出孔道,并用它自己分泌的液体覆涂在孔壁上。1818年布鲁诺尔在蛀虫钻孔的启示下,最早提出了用盾构法建设隧道的设想,并且在英国取得了该施工法的专利。1825年,布鲁诺尔用他自己的想法制成盾构,并第一次在泰晤士河施工了水底隧道。这条道路隧道的断面(11.4m×6.8m)相当大,施工中遇到了坍方和水淹,加上隧道的损坏,当时处于难于进展的状态,由于初始未能掌握控制泥水涌入隧道的方法,隧道施工中两次被淹,后来在东伦敦地下铁道公司的合作下,经过对盾构施工的改进,用气压辅助施工,花了18年的时间才于1843年完成了全长458m的第一条盾构法隧道。

1865年巴尔劳首次采用圆形盾构,并用铸铁管片作为地下隧道衬砌。1869年,他用圆形盾构在泰晤土河底下建成了外径为2.21m 的隧道。在盾构穿越饱和含水地层时,施加压缩空气以防止涌水的气压法最先是在1830年由口切兰斯爵士(Lord Cochrance)发明的。1874年,在英国伦敦地下铁道南线的粘土和含水砂砾地层中建造内径为3.12m的隧道时,格雷塞德(Henry Greathead) (1844~1896)综合了以往所有盾构施工和气压法的技术特点,较完整地提出了气压盾构法的施工工艺,并且首创了在盾尾后面的衬砌外围环形空隙中压浆的施工方法,为盾构法发展起了重大的推动作用。1880~1890年间,在美国和加拿大间的圣克莱河下用盾构法建成一条直径6.4m,长1800余m的水底铁路隧道。二十世纪初,盾构施工法已在美、英、德、苏、法等国开始推广。30~40年代在这些国家已成功地使用盾构建成内径自3.0~9.5m的多条地下铁道及过河公路隧道。仅在美国纽约就采用气压法建成了19条重要的水底隧道,盾构施工的范围很广泛,有公路隧道、地下铁道、上下水道以及其他市政公用设施管道等。苏联40年代初开始使用直径为6.0~9.5m的盾构先后在莫斯科、列宁格勒等市修建地下铁道的区间隧道及车站。

从20世纪60年代起,盾构法在日本得到迅速发展,除了大量在东京、大阪、名古屋等城市的地下铁道建设中外,更多地是用在下水道等市政公用设施管道建设中。70年代,日本及联邦德国等国针对在城市建设区的松软含水地层中由于盾构施工所引起的地表沉陷、预制高精度钢筋混凝土衬砌和接缝防水等技术问题,研制了各种新型的衬砌和防水技术及局部气压式、泥水加压式和土压平衡式等新型盾构及相应的工艺和配套设备。

值得一提的是日本的盾构发展情况。日本是欧美国家以外第一个引进盾构施工技术的国家。1939年的关门隧道是日本首次采用盾构施工技术的隧道工程。由于战争及战后困难时期的缘故,此项技术一直没有得到发展。直到1957年东京地铁的丸之内线采用盾构施工技术修建了一段区间隧道,1961年名古屋地铁采用此法修建了觉王山区间隧道取得圆满成果之后,盾构施工技术在日本有了飞速的发展。在短短的20余年之内共制造了2000余台盾构,在世界上处于领先地位。日本的机械式盾构是和手掘式盾构同时研究发展起来的。1963年,大阪市上水道大淀送水管工程(总长227m)首次应用了外径2.592m(隧道外径2.35m)的机械式盾构。1964年,大阪市地下铁道2号线谷町工区(总长447m)的区间隧道中,采用了外径6.97m(隧道外径6.8m)的大断面机械式盾构。同年,在东京都下水道局神谷3丁目2区(总长668.4m)采用了外径3.4m的(隧道外径3.30m)机械式盾构,标准施工月进度达360m。1967年,日本近畿铁道难波线上本町难波间1488m区间采用了外径为10.041m (隧道内径9.90m)的机械式盾构。从此,人们对机械式盾构更为关注,使能够用于日本那样复杂地层的各种机械盾构进一步得到了发展。特别是小断面盾构,在缩短工期的研究中也取得了很大的进步。同时在软弱地基中还研制了挤压式盾构。

1993年建成的、连接英法两国的英吉利海峡隧道,全长48.5km,海底段长37.5km,隧道最深处在海平面下100m。这条隧道全部采用盾构法技术施工,英国一侧共用6台盾构,3台施工岸边段,3台施工海底段,施工海底段的盾构要向海峡中单向推进21.2km ,与从法国侧向英国方向推来的盾构对接。法国侧共用6台盾构,2台施工岸边段,3台施工海底段。海峡隧道由2条外径8.6m的单线铁路隧道及1条外径为5.6m米的辅助隧道组成。由于海底段最大深度达100m,因此无论盾构机械还是预制钢筋混凝土管片衬砌结构均要承受10个大气压的水压力,又由于单向推进21.2km ,盾构推进速度必须达到月进1000m的速度才能在3年左右的时间内完成,因此盾构的构造及其后续设备均须采用高质量的耐磨耗及腐蚀的材料。所以该隧道的修建标志着盾构施工技术的最新水平。

近年来,日本把机械式盾构作了改进,研制出了用加压泥浆稳定开挖面的泥水加压盾构和利用开挖出的土体作平衡开挖面的土压平衡盾构。

二.盾构的分类及适用条件

盾构的的形式可以从各个方面进行分类。

按手工和机械划分为:手掘式,半机械式,机械式三大类。

以工作面挡土方式划分:敞开式,密闭式。

以气压和泥水加压方式划分:气压式,泥水加压式,土压平衡式,加水式,高浓度泥水加压式,加泥式。

1.手掘式盾构。手掘式盾构是盾构的基本形式,世界上仍有工程采用手掘式盾构,如图2所示。按不同的地质条件,开挖面可全部敞开人工开挖;也可用全部或部分的正面支撑,根据开挖面土体自立性适当分层开挖,随挖土随支撑。开挖士方量为全部隧道排土量。这种盾构便于观察地层和清除障碍,易于纠偏,简易价廉,但劳动强度大,效率低,如遇正面坍方,易危及人身及工程安全。在含水地层中需辅以降水、气压或土壤加固。

这种盾构由上而下进行开挖,开挖时按顺序调换正面支撑千斤顶,开挖出来的土从下半部用皮带运输机装入出土车,采用这种盾构的基本条件是:开挖面至少要在挖掘阶段无坍塌现象,因为挖掘地层时盾构前方是敞开的。

手掘式盾构的适用地层:手掘式盾构有各种各样的开挖面支撑方法,从砂性土到粘性土地层均能适用,因此较适应于复杂的地层,迄今为止施工实例也最多,该形式的盾构在开挖面出现障碍物时,由于正面是敞开的,所以也较易排除。由于这种盾构造价低廉,发生故障也少,因此是最为经济的盾构。在开挖面自立性差的地层中施工时,它可与气压、降水、化学注浆等稳定地层的辅助施工法同时使用。

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图2  手掘式盾构

2.挤压式盾构。当敞开式盾构在地质条件很差的粉砂土质地层、粘土层中施工时,土就会从开挖面流入盾构、引起开挖面坍塌,因而不能继续开挖,这时应在盾构的前面设置胸板来密闭前方,同时在脚板上开出土用的小孔,这种形式的盾构就叫挤压式盾构(见图3)。盾构在挤压推进时,土体就会从出土孔如同膏状物从管口挤出那样,挤入盾构。根据推进速度来确定开口率。当开口率过大时,出土量增加,会引起周围地层的沉降;反之,就会增大盾构的切入阻力,使地面隆起。采用挤压盾构时,对一定的地质条件设置一定的开口率、控制出土量是非常重要的。

挤压盾构是将手掘式盾构胸板封闭,以挡住正面土体。这种盾构分为全挤压式或局部挤压式两种,它适用于软弱粘性土层。盾构全挤压向前推进时,封闭全部胸板,不需出土,但要引起相当大的地表变形。当采用局部挤压式盾构,要部分打开胸板,将需要排出的土体从开口处挤入盾构内,然后装车外运,这种盾构施工,地表变形也较大。

挤压式盾构适用地层:挤压式盾构的适用范围取决于地层的物理力学性能。在日本隧道的规范(盾构篇)及说明书(1977年版)中,它是按含砂率—内聚力、液性指数—内聚力的关系来确定其适用范围。根据施工经验,内聚力即使超出该范围,在含砂率小的地层中也可能适用。根据迄今为止的施工经验,当土体含砂率在20%以下、液性指数在60%以上、内聚力在0.5kg/cm2以下时,盾构的开口率一般为2~0.8%,在极软弱的地层中,开口率也有小到的0.3%。在挤压式盾构的施工区间内如遇有为了建筑物或地层加固而进行过化学注浆的地基时,将会影响挤压盾构的推进,因此应预先考虑到把盾构胸板做成可拆卸的形式。

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图3  挤压盾构

3.网格式盾构,在上海软土层中常常被采用。它具有的特点是,进土量接近或等于全部隧道其出土量,且往往带有局部挤压性质,盾构正面装钢板网格,在推进中可以切土,而在停止推进时可起稳定开挖面的作用。切入的土体可用转盘、皮带运输机、矿车或水力机械运出,如图4所示。这种盾构法如在土质较适当的地层中精心施工,地表沉降可控制到中等或较小的程度。在含水地层中施工,需要辅以疏干地层的措施。

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图4  网格式盾构

1-盾构千斤顶(推进盾构用);2-开挖面支撑千斤顶;3-举重臂(拼装装配式钢筋混凝土衬砌用);

4-堆土平台(盾构下部土块由转盘提升后落入堆土平台);5-刮板运输机,土块由堆土平台进入后输出;6-装配式钢筋混凝土衬砌;7-盾构钢壳;8-开挖面钢网格;9-转盘;10-装土车。

4.半机械式盾构。半机械式盾构是如图5所示。半机械式盾构是介于手掘式和机械式盾构之间的一种形式,它更接近于手掘式盾构。它是在敞开式盾构的基础上安装机械挖土和出土装置,以代替人工劳动,因而具有省力而高效等特点。

    机械挖土装置前后、左右、上下均能活动。它有铲斗式、切削头式和两者兼有等三种形式。它的顶部与手掘式盾构相同,装有活动前檐、正面支撑千斤顶等。

    盾构的机械装备有如下形式:

    ①盾构工作面下半部分装有铲斗、切割头等。

    ②盾构工作面上半部分装有铲斗、下半部分装有切割头。

    ③盾构中心装有切割头。

    ④盾构中心装有铲斗。

    形式①:盾构工作面上半部装有正面支撑千斤顶和作业平台,上半部工作面由人工挖掘,挖掘的土、砂落到下半部分,下半-部分由铲斗和装载机进行挖掘和出土。

    形式②:盾构的上半部工作面由铲斗或者装载机挖掘,下半部工作面由切割头或铲斗进行挖掘和出土。

    形式③:由切割头进行挖掘和出土。

    形式④:由铲斗式挖掘机进行挖掘和出土。

半机械盾构的适用地层:半机械式盾构比手掘式盾构更适用于良好地层。形式①适用于开挖面需作支撑的地层,形式②~④适用于能自立的地层。形式②大多适用于亚粘土与砂砾的夹层。形式③大多适用于固结粘上层、硬质砂土层。形式④大多适用于粘土和砂砾混合层。

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图5  半机械式盾构

5.开胸机械切削盾构。当地层能够自立,或采用辅助措施后能够自立时,在盾构的切口部分,安装与盾构直径相适应的大刀盘,以进行全断面开胸机械切削开挖,如图6所示。机械式盾构是一种采用紧贴着开挖面的旋转刀盘进行全断面开挖的盾构。它具有可连续不断地挖掘土层的功能。能一边出土、一边推进,连续不断地进行作业。

    机械式盾构的切削机构采用最多的是大刀盘形式,它有单轴式、双重转动式、多轴式数种,其中单轴式使用得最为广泛。多根辐条状槽口的切削头绕中心轴转动,由刀头切削下来的土从槽口进入设在外圈的转盘中,再由转盘提升到漏土斗中,然后由传送带把土送入出土车。

    机械式盾构的优点除了能改善作业环境、省力外,还能显著提高推进速度,缩短工期。问题是盾构的造价高,为了提高工作效率而带来的后续设备多,基地面积大等。因此若隧道长度短时,就不够经济。与手掘式盾构相比,在曲率半径小的情况下施工以及盾构纠偏都比较困难。

机械式盾构适用地层:机械式盾构可在极易坍塌的地层中施工,因为盾构的大刀盘本身就有防止开挖面坍塌的作用。但是,在粘性土地层中施工时,切削下来的土易粘附在转盘内,压密后会造成出土困难。因此机械式盾构大多适用于地质变化少的砂性土地层。

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图6  开胸式机械切削式盾构

7. 局部气压盾构。在机械盾构的支承环前边装上隔板,使切口与此隔板之间形成一个密封舱。在密封舱内充满压缩空气,达到稳定开挖面土体的作用。这样隧道施工人员就不处在气压内工作。在适当地质条件下,对比全气压盾构,无疑有较大优越性。但这种盾构在密封舱、盾尾及管片接缝处易产生漏气问题,如图7所示。

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图7  局部气压式盾构

7.泥水加压式盾构。泥水加压式盾构是在盾构正面与支承环前面装置隔板的密封舱中,注入适当压力的泥浆来支撑开挖面,并以安装在正面的大刀盘切削土体,进土与泥水混合后,用排泥泵及管道输送至地面处理(见图8)

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图8  泥水加压式盾构

(a)德国式  (b)日本式

    具体地讲,泥水加压盾构就是在机械式盾构大刀盘的后方设置一道隔板,隔板与大刀盘之间作为泥水室,在开挖面和泥水室中充满加压的泥水,通过加压作用和压力保持机构,保证开挖面土体的稳定。盾构推进时开挖下来的土就进入泥水室。由搅拌装置进行搅拌,搅拌后的高浓度泥水用流体输送法送出地面,把送出的泥水进行水土分离,然后再把分离后的泥水送入泥水室,不断地循环泥水加压盾构在其内部不能直接观察到开挖面,因此要求盾构从推进、排泥到泥水处理全部按系统化作业。通过泥水压力、泥水流量、泥水浓度等的测定,算出开挖土量,全部作业过程均由中央控制台综合管理。泥水加压盾构是利用了泥水的特性对开挖面起稳定作用的,泥水同时具有下列三个作用。

(1) 泥水的压力和开挖面水土压力的平衡。

(2) 泥水作用到地层上后,形成一层不透水的泥膜,使泥水产生有效的压力。

(3) 加压泥水可渗透到地层的某一区域,使得该区域内的开挖面稳定。

    就泥水的特性而言,浓度和密度越高,开挖面的稳定性越好,而浓度和密度越低泥水输送时效率越高,因此考虑了以上条件,目前被广泛作为泥水管理标准的数值如下:

    (1)容重:1.05~1.25(g/cm3)粘土、膨润土等。

    (2)粘度:20~40(s),漏斗粘度500/500ml。

    (3)脱水量:Q<200ml,(APL过滤试验3kg/cm2,30min)。

泥水加压盾构有日本体系及德国体系,如图8所示。两者区别是:德国式的密封舱中设置了起缓冲作用的气压舱,以便于人工控制正面泥浆压力,构造较简单;而日本式密封舱中全是泥水,要有一套自动控制泥水平衡的装置。一般地说,泥水盾构对地层扰动最小,地面沉降也最小,但费用最高。

泥水加压盾构法在日本首次采用是1966年,从1970年国铁京叶线羽田隧道在运河下来用了7.29m的泥水加压盾构施工以后,该法引人注目。1974年发生了化学注浆的药液公害以后,控制了注浆药液的种类,因此对不必采用化学注浆的泥水加压盾构法又作了新的估计。1975年后,该法施工的工程数剧增,几乎兴起了泥水加压盾构热。到了1981年,用泥水加压盾构构法施工的工程数占盾构法施工工程总数的1/3。大部分人认为泥水加压盾构对不同土层的适应性强,便于来用自动化管理。而在1983年2月的日本第4次隧道技术讨论会上,否定了泥水加压盾构对不同土层适应性强的这一提法,认为至少该盾构不适应在未加辅助施工条件下的砾石层和含粘性土极少的卵石层中施工。一般认为,在砂性土为主的洪积层中采用泥水加压盾构较为有利,而在粘性土为主的冲积层中施工时,需要较高的泥浆处理费用。泥水加压盾构施工后地表沉降量可控制在10mm以内,问题是如何降低泥浆处理的费用,降低后续设备的造价(泥水式盾构的造价高于土压式盾构)。

泥水盾构适用地层:泥水加压盾构最初是在冲积粘土和洪积砂土交错出现的特殊地层中使用,由于泥水对开挖面的作用明显,因此软弱的淤泥质土层、松动的砂土层、砂砾层、卵石砂砾层、砂砾和坚硬土的互层等均运用。泥水加压盾构对地层的适用范围之广。但是在松动的卵石层和坚硬土层中采用泥水加压盾构施工,会产生逸水现象,因此在泥水中应加入一些胶合剂来堵塞漏缝。在非常松散的卵石层中开挖时,也有可能失败。还有在坚硬的土层中开挖时,不仅土的微粒会使泥水质量降低,而且粘土还常会粘附在刀盘和槽口上,给开挖带来困难,因此应该予以注意。

泥水加压盾构的适用性:

    (1)细粒土(粒径0.074mm 以下)含有率在粒径累积曲线的10%以上。

    (2)砾石(粒径2mm以上)含有率在粒径加积曲线的60%以上。

    (3)自然含水量18%以上。

    (4)无200~30Omm的粗砾石。

渗透系数K<10-2cm/s。

8.土压平衡式盾构。土压盾构又称削土密闭式或泥土加压式盾构。它的前端有一个全断面切削刀盘,切削刀盘的后面有一个贮留切削土体的密封舱,在密封舱中心线下部装置长筒形螺旋输送机,输送机一头设有出入口,如图9所示。所谓土压平衡就是密封舱中切削下来的土体和泥水充满密封舱,并可具有适当压力与开挖面土压平衡,以减少对土体的扰动,控制地表沉降。这种盾构可节省泥水盾构中所必须的泥水平衡及泥水处理装置的大量费用,主要适用于粘性土或有一定粘性的粉砂土。现已有加水或加泥水的新型土压平衡盾构,可适用于多种土层。

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图9 土压平衡式盾构

    土压平衡式盾构首次使用于1974年,它是外径为3.72m的水工隧道盾构,以后由于土压系盾构的排土机构在性能上得到了改善,并开发了各种能使开挖面稳定的机构,从1978年开始,在日本该盾构的制造台数急剧上升,到1981年12月,该形式的盾构占全部盾构台数的29%。

土压平衡式盾构的基本原理,由刀盘切削土层,切削后的泥土进入土腔(工作室),土腔内的泥土与开挖面压力取得平衡的同时由土腔内的螺旋输送机出土,装于排土口的排土装置在出土量与推进量取得平衡的状态下,进行连续出土。土压平衡式盾构的产品名称是各不相同的,即使是相类似的盾构,其名称也因开挖面稳定的方法和各公司对排土机构开发过程的不同而各异。在使开挖面稳定条件不同的盾构中,把这种从土腔内用螺旋输送机出土的盾构与泥水加压盾构相区别。土压平衡式盾构又分为:削土加压式,土压平衡加水式,高浓度泥水加压式,加泥式等4类。

开挖工作面稳定机构:

土压平衡式盾构的开挖面稳定机构,按地质条件可以分成二种型式,一种是适用于内摩擦角小且易流动的淤泥、粘土等等的粘质土层;另一种是适用于土的内摩擦角大、不易流动、透水性大的砂、砂砾等等的砂质士层。

(1)粘性土层中的开挖面稳定机构

     在粉质粘土、粉砂、粉细砂等的粘性土层中,开挖面稳定机构的排土方式是:由刀盘切削后的泥土先进入土腔内,在土腔内的土压与开挖面的土压(在粘性土中,开挖面土压与水压的混合、压力作用)达到平衡的同时,由螺旋输送机把开挖的泥土送往后部,再从出土闸门口出土。这种机构首先是由挖掘的泥土充满土腔,在软弱的粘性土地层中,由刀盘切削后的泥土强度一般都比原状土的强度低,因而易流动。即使是在内聚力很高的土层中,也由于刀盘的搅拌作用和螺旋输送机的搬运作用搅乱了土体,使土的流动性增大,因此充满在土腔内和螺旋输运机内泥土的土压、可与开挖面的土压达到相等。当然这种充满在土腔和输送机内泥土的土压必须在与开挖面土压相等的情况下由螺旋输送机排土,挖掘量与排土量要保持平衡。但是,当地层的含砂量超过某一限度时,由刀盘切削的土流动性变差,而且当土腔内泥土过于充满并固给时,泥土就会压密,难以挖掘和排土,迫使推进停止。在这种情况下,一般采用的方法是:向土腔内添加膨润土、粘土等进行搅拌,或者喷入水和空气,用以增加土腔内土的流动性。

(2)砂质土层中开挖面的稳定机构

在砂、砂砾的砂质土地层中,土的摩擦阻力大,地下水丰富,透水系数也高,因此,依靠挖掘土的土压和排土机构与开挖面的压力(地下水压和土压)达到平衡就很困难。而且由刀盘切削的土体流动性也不能保证,对于这样的土层仅采用排土机构的机械控制使开挖面稳定是很困难的。因此要用水、膨润土、粘土、高浓度泥水、泥浆材料等等的混合料向开挖面加压灌注,并不断地进行搅拌,改变挖掘土的成分比例,以此保证土的流动性和止水性,使开挖面稳定。

开挖面的稳定机构可分为以下几种方式:

①切削土加压搅拌方式:在土腔内喷入水、空气、或者添加混合材料,来保证土腔内的土砂流动性。在螺旋输送机的排土口装有可止水的旋转式送料器(转动阀或旋转式漏斗),送料器的隔离作用能使开挖面稳定。

    ②加水方式:向开挖面加入压力水,保证挖掘土的流动性,同时让压力水与地下水压相平衡。开挖面的土压由土腔内的混合土体的压力与其平衡,为了能确保压力水的作用,在螺旋输送机的后部装有排土调整槽,控制调整槽的开度使开挖面稳定。

    ③高浓度泥水加压方式:向开挖面加入高浓度泥水,通过泥水和挖掘土的搅拌,以保证挖掘土体的流动性,开挖面土压和水压由高浓度泥水的压力来平衡。在螺旋输送机的排土口装有旋转式送料器,送料器的隔离作用使开挖面稳定。

    ④加泥式:向开挖面注入粘土类材料和泥浆,由辐条形的刀盘和搅拌机构混合搅拌挖掘的土,使挖掘的土具有止水性和流动性。由这种改性土的土压与开挖面的土压、水压达到平衡,使开挖工作面得到稳定。

土压平衡盾构较适应于在软弱的冲积土层中推进,但在砾石层中或砂土层推进时,加进适当的泥土后,也能发挥土压平衡盾构的特点。因此1983年后,一般认为土压平衡盾构的适应性是强的,土压平衡盾构施工后的地表沉降量可控制在30mm以内。但其要求施工人员具有相当丰富的施工经验,能根据地层和施工条件的变化采用一系列的施工管理方法。

土压平衡盾构(含加泥式盾构)适用性:

(1) 细粒(粒径0.074mm以下)含有率在粒径加积曲线的7%以上。

(2) 砾石(粒径2mm以上)含有率在粒径加积曲线的70%以下。

(3) 粘性土(粘土、粉砂土含有率4%以上)的N值在15以下。

(4) 自然含水量,砂:18%以上,粘性土:25%以上。

(5) 渗透系数K<5×10-2cm/s。

    泥水加压盾构和土压平衡盾构是当前最先进的盾构形式,它们有自己的特点,但是,它们不能完全取代其它类型的盾构形式,其理由之一就是它们的造价一般都高于其它类型的盾构。

    当某施工范围内的土层为软土,并且地质情况变化不大,地表控制沉降的要求不高时,可采用挤压盾构。当施工沿线有可能出现障碍物时,也有采用开胸手掘式盾构的(手掘、机械兼用等)。

盾构法隧道衬砌,在20世纪30年代前采用铸铁管片,自30年代开始采用钢筋混凝土预制管片。60年代以来钢筋混凝土预制管片在世界各国得到更普遍的推广,衬砌防水技术也相应地出现以弹性防水材料为主的新材料新工艺。由于盾构机械及衬砌结构防水技术的不断发展,使盾构法在技术经济上的优越性和社会效益日益提高。

三.我国盾构法隧道的发展历史

    盾构施工技术在解放前的旧中国还是一项缺门。我国在第一个五年计划期间,东北阜新煤矿用直径2.6m盾构及小型混凝土预制块修建疏水巷道。1957年在北京下水道工程中也用过直径为2.0m及2.6m的盾构。1963年上海开始在第四纪软弱含水地层中进行Ф4.2m盾构隧道工程试验,盾构为手掘式,有16个推进千斤顶,总推力为1.96×104kN,并备有正面支撑千斤顶,隧道衬砌为单层防水钢筋混凝土肋型管片,接缝防水材料为沥青环氧树脂,试验中曾采用了降水法和气压法两种疏干地层的辅助施工措施。这些施工工艺及衬砌防水均告成功。1964年,采用同一盾构和同样的衬砌及防水材料,在覆土约12m的饱和含水淤泥粘土层中进行盾构推进试验。这次试验根据软粘土中适宜用钢板网格切土和支撑的特点,盾构胸板改装为开孔面积可由活动挡板调节的网格,这便是以后常在上海采用的网格式盾构。采用这种型式的盾构在覆土约12m的饱和含水淤泥质粘土中,进行了降水法全出土、无气压全出土、加气压全出土和全闭胸挤压的推进试验。结果不仅建成了隧道,还取得了在不同施工方法中,衬砌外荷变化和隧道地面沉降的初步资料,肯定了在软弱粘性土中使用网格式盾构辅以一定气压,可以用单层钢筋混凝土管片建成有较好防水性能的隧道,并可将地面沉陷控制在较小的程度内。在直径4.2m盾构试验成功的基础上,1965年采用2个直径5.8m、总推力为3.724×l04kN的网格盾构,在覆土约12m的淤泥质粘土层中进行试验,建成了2个试验隧道。其衬砌采用五块预制平板式单层防水钢筋混凝土砌块。盾构推进中除在进出井洞时采用降水法外,其余均采用气压法推进,气压值为8.82×l04~11.76×l04Pa。直径5.8m盾构推进在敷设上下水道、煤气管道以及数幢楼房底下穿越,均未影响它们的使用,清况良好。1966年,在以前试验的基础上,开始为第一条上海黄浦江越江公路隧道设计和制造了直径为10m的网格盾构和钢筋混凝土管片。采用了整环浇捣管片,按环次位置给管片编号并对号拼装以提高管片拼装精度。1967年至1969年,采用此10m盾构及单层钢筋混凝士管片建成了上海第一条黄浦江越江道路隧道。盾构穿越了地面以下深度为17~30余m的以淤泥质粘土层和粉砂层为主的土层,在两岸不同的地段采用了降水法全出土、全闭胸挤压、气压全出土以及局部挤压方法施工,在河中段还采用了无气压全闭胸挤压法施工。打浦路隧道的建设成功,一下子就使我国在盾构施工技术方面赶上了国际水平。特别要指出的是在饱和含水地层中来用单层预制钢筋混凝土管片,国际上亦是在60年代才发展起来的。1987年建成的延安东路隧道,外径为11m,是我国盾构施工技术的最新成就。迄今为止,仅由上海市隧道工程设计院设计,上海市隧道工程公司用盾构法施工的各类隧道就达几十公里以上,使我国成为发展中国家中唯一能挤身于世界盾构施工技术之林的国家。

1970年以来,上海又用盾构法在长江边及海边建成六条外径4.3m的排水及引水隧道,以及市区街道下的隧道。70年代以来,北京、江苏、浙江、福建等省市也用不同类型盾构修建了各种不同用途的隧道。1984年上海又制成了外径为11.32m的大型盾构,用于建造第二条黄浦江水底公路隧道。1985年,又在上海的芙蓉江路用盾构建造了内径为3.6m的下水道总管,开始把盾构法推广到市政公用设施工程中。上海用盾构修建的隧道列于表1。

表1

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第三节  盾构法的适用范围

建造隧道的方法有多种多样,但是用盾构法建造地铁隧道却具有其独到之处。特别是在人口密集、交通繁忙的大城市中,盾构法是一种必不可少的施工方法。随着地下建筑物、地下管线、地下铁道的不断发展,在城市中建造地铁及其它地下结构物,将逐步深层化。盾构法施工的费用一般不受深度因素和覆土深浅的影响,该法适宜于建造覆土较深的隧道;在同等深层的条件下,盾构法与明挖法施工相比,较为经济合理。近年来,盾构有了较大的突破性改进,已由初期的气压手掘式盾构发展到最近的泥水加压盾构、土压平衡盾构、加泥式盾构等。日本从1955年起到1986年3月,30年间共制作盾构3000台左右。

由于盾构断面外径大者可达10多米,小者仅1米多,且盾构机械及辅助施工技术日臻完善,大大提高了其对各种困难条件的适应性。因而盾构可以穿越各种复杂工程,水文地质特性的地层,有广泛的适用范围。

一.大直径盾构的适用范围

    直径10m左右的大型盾构多用于修建水底公路隧道和铁路隧道。

    大型盾构还可以用于建造暗埋地铁车站。在苏联莫斯科用9~10m直径的盾构建成三条平行的车站隧道,在中间隧道与两侧隧道间修建通道形成三拱塔柱式车站,如图10所示,也可用盾构修建三拱立柱式车站,如图11所示。

在日本,用盾构建成的两条平行车站隧道,在两隧道之间修建通道,便形成眼镜形地下车站,如图12所示。

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图10  三拱塔柱式车站

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图11  三拱立柱式车站

    在饱和含水松软地层中用盾构法修建地铁车站较用地下连续墙法费用高,故只有在地面不得开挖的条件下才以盾构法修建地铁车站。而在如苏联莫斯科寒武纪粘土等良好地质条件下,以盾构法修建较深地铁车站,则具有优越性。

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图12  眼镜式车站

二.中直径盾构的运用范围

直往为6m左右的中型盾构,适用于修建地下铁道的区间隧道。

三.小直径盾构的适用范围

3m直径左右的小型盾构,较多地用于引水、排水、电缆、通讯及其它市政公用设施综合管道的建设。

第四节  盾构的选型

一般地讲,采用盾构施工的地层大都是复杂多变的,目前还没有一种万能的盾构适合于各种地质条件。实际上,在选定盾构时,不仅要考虑到地质条件,还要考虑到盾构的外径、隧道的长度、工程的施工程序、劳动力情况等,而且还要综合研究工程的施工环境、基地面积、施工引起对环境的影响程度等。选择盾构的种类一般要求掌握不同盾构的特征,表2和表3所列的是选定各种盾构时的基准,同时,还要逐个研究如下几个项目:

① 开挖面有无障碍物。

② 气压施工时开挖面能否自立稳定。

③ 气压施工并用其它辅助施工法后开挖面能否稳定。

④ 挤压推进,切削土加压推进中,开挖面能否自立稳定。

⑤ 开挖面在加入水压、加泥压、泥水压作用下,能否自立稳定。

⑥ 经济性。

盾构的选型一定要综合考虑各种因素,不仅是技术方面的,而且还有经济和社会方面的因素,才能最后确定采用何种盾构施工。

第五节  隧道的衬砌结构与构造

一.隧道断面的型式

    盾构法隧道为位于二端竖井结构间的暗埋隧道段,盾构由一端的拼装竖井开始推进,再从另一端的拆卸竖井推出,形成有一定坡度的隧道。根据隧道的使用要求、施工技术的可能、外围土层的特性、隧道受力等因素,其横断面一般有圆形、矩形、半圆型、马蹄形等多种型式,最常用的横断面型式为圆型与矩型。

1.圆形隧道断面的优点

(1) 可以等同地承受各方向外部压力。尤其是在饱和含水软土地层中修建地下隧道,由于顶压、侧压、较为接近,更可显示出圆形隧道断面的优越性。

(2) 施工中易于盾构推进。

(3) 便于管片的制作、拼装。

(4) 盾构即使发生转动,对断面的利用也毫无妨碍。

2.单双层衬砌的选用

近年来,由于防水材料质量的提高,可以考虑省略二次衬砌,采用单层的一次衬砌,既承重又防水。

    上海地区的隧道穿越松软含水地层,为防水、防蚀、增加衬砌的强度和刚度、修正施工误差,可采用双层衬砌。譬如电力、通讯等隧道对防渗漏要求严格,而进排水隧道要求减小内壁粗糙系数,且它一经运营后就无法检修,若外层衬砌有漏点,衬砌外侧土体随水渗入流失,时间一长,可能会危及结构本身。所以来用双层衬砌的较多,至少也得在圆环底部适当范围内浇筑内衬。

    内外衬砌间不设防水卷材,不进行凿毛处理,仅在设局部衬砌时,才需在该范围进行凿毛处理,以增加粘结能力,可靠地盖住最下面接头缝隙,满足使用要求。

但双层衬砌施工周期长,造价贵,且它的止水效果在很大程度上还是取决于外层衬砌的施工质量、渗漏情况,所以只有当隧道功能上有如上述那些特殊要求,才选用双层衬砌。通常在满足工程使用要求的前提下,应优先选用单层装配式钢筋混凝土衬砌。它施工工艺单一,工程施工周期短,投资省。随着高效能盾构机械的应用,衬砌防水技术的提高,施工工艺的日臻完善,越来越多的工程都选用了单层衬砌。即使大直径的过江公路隧道(如上海延安东路、打浦路越江隧道等)或承受地铁机车振动荷载的地下铁道,也是如此。

二.装配式衬砌分类与选型

1.衬砌组成

装配式衬砌圆环一般由标准块、邻接块和封顶块的多块预制管片在盾尾内拼装而成。根据工程需要,组成衬砌的预制构件有铸铁、钢、混凝土、钢筋混凝土管片或砌块之分,我国目前用得最多的是钢筋混凝土管片或砌块。

管片按其形状分为箱形管片和板形管片二类,如图21、22所示。

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图21箱形管片(钢筋混凝土)

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图22平板形管片(钢筋混凝土)

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图  23

(a)横剖面    (b)管片示意图

图23是某越江隧道的钢筋混凝土箱形管片。每一衬砌环由8块管片组成,其中5块标准块,2块邻接块,l块封顶块。管片之间用螺栓连接。

图24是由5块钢筋混凝土砌块组成的衬砌。其中2块标准块,2块邻接块,1块封顶块。各砌块之间用螺栓连接。

图25(a)是两种类型的砌块(甲型砌块和乙型砌块共6块)相间拼装组成,各砌块之间不用螺栓连接,相邻环错缝拼装。图25(b)、(c)的表示两种砌块型式。

盾构法隧道的衬砌由预制管片或砌块组成,与整体式现浇衬砌相比,其优点是:

(1) 安装后能立刻承受荷载。

(2) 施工易于机械化。

(3) 由于在工厂预制,质量有保证,但其接缝处的防水处理需要来取特别有效的措施。

2.单块管片的几何尺寸

衬砌环环宽B越大,即管片宽度越宽,在同等里程内的隧道衬砌环接缝就越少,因而漏水环节、螺栓亦越少,施工进度加快。衬砌环的制作费、施工费用减少,经济效益明显提高,因此,具有无可争辩的优越性。但它受运输及盾构机械设备能力的制约,应综合考虑举重臂能力及盾构千斤顶的冲程。特别是盾构与隧道轴线坡度差较大的地段和曲线施工段,在一定曲率半径及盾尾长度情况下,B应由盾构千斤顶的有效冲程来决定。

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图24

                            (a)横剖面     (b)砌块示意图

综上所述,衬砌环环宽B应与盾构千斤顶冲程及其推进来量等相适应,应尽可能取得宽一些。在目前施工中,对于直径为3.5~10m的隧道,常用的环宽一般为750~1000mm。

在曲线段应考虑不等宽的楔形环,其环面锥度可按隧道曲率半径计算得出,但不宜太大。衬砌直径大于6m者,楔形量30~50mm,小直径隧道约15~40mm。

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图25

                      (a)横剖面      (b)甲型块       (c)乙型块。

衬砌管片的厚度δ应根据隧道直径(D)大小、埋深、承受荷载情况、衬砌结构构造、材质、衬砌所承受的施工荷载(主要是盾构千斤顶顶力)大小等因素来确定,一般约为(0.05~0.06)D,直径为6.0m以下的隧道,钢筋混凝土管片厚度约250~350mm,直径为6.0m以上的隧道,钢筋混凝土管片厚约350~600mm。

3.管片衬砌的分块与拼装形式

装配式衬砌由多块预制管片在盾尾内拼装而成,衬砌圆环的分块主要由管片制作、运输、安装等方面的实践经验确定,但也应符合满意的受力性能的要求。以钢筋混凝土管片为例:10m左右大直径隧道在饱和含水软弱地层中为减少接缝形变和漏水可以分为8 ~10块,在较好土质下为减少内力可增加分块数量,有的做成27块;6m左右中直径隧道一般分成6~8块,尤以接头均匀分布的8块为佳,符合内力最小的原则; 3m左右小直径隧道可采用4等分管片,把管片接缝设置在内力较小的45°处和135°处,使衬砌环具有较好的刚度和强度,接缝处内力达最小值,其构造也可相应得到简化,也有由三块组成的衬砌环。管片的最大弧、弦长度一般较少超过4 m ,管片较薄时其长度相应较短。

由上述可知,从制作、防水、拼装速度方面考虑,衬砌环分块数越少越好,最少可以分为三块。但从运输及拼装方便而言又希望分块数多一些为好。在设计时应配合结构所处土层的特性、受荷情况、构造特点、计算模式(按多铰柔性圆环考虑,则分块数应多,若按均质弹性圆环设计,则分块数宜少一些,上海地区多半按后者考虑)、运输能力、制作拼装方便等因素综合考虑决定树砌分块数。通常隧道直径D<6m的4~6块居多, 6m以上者以8~10块为宜。

封顶块的形式,从尺寸上看有大小之分。所谓大封顶,是指其尺寸与其它标准块、邻接块相当,这种形式,块与块、环与环间的连接处理方便,但拼装不易。而小封顶环面弧弦长尺寸均很小,多半为400~1000mm 左右,拼装成环方便,但连接构造复杂些,因而有时不得不用钢材制作。根据隧道施工的实践经验,考虑到施工方便以及受力的需要,目前封顶块一般趋向于采用小封顶形式。封顶块的拼装形式有径向楔入、纵向插入等几种。径向楔入者其半径方向的两边线必须呈内八字形或者至少是平行,受荷后有向下滑动的趋势,受力不利。采用纵向插入形式的封顶块受力情况较好,在受荷后,封顶块不易向内滑移,其缺点是在封顶块管片拼装时,需要加长盾构千斤顶行程。故也可采用一半径向楔入和另一半纵向插入的方法以减少千斤顶行程。目前,我国、西德及比利时等国多半根据千斤顶的冲程大小来选用全纵向插入或根据冲程大小反算得出径向楔入及纵向插入长度,以此进行设计。在一些隧道工程中也有把封顶块设置于45°, 135°甚至180°(圆环底部)处的。

wps3E36.tmp

               图26构砌管片通缝拼装                                                   图27衬砌管片错缝拼装

圆环的拼装形式有通缝(图26),错缝(图27)两种。所有衬砌环的纵缝呈一线的情况称之为通缝拼装。而环间纵缝相互错开,犹如砖砌体一样的情况称之为错缝拼装。衬砌环采用错缝拼装较普遍,其优点在于能使圆环接缝刚度分布趋于均匀,减少接缝及整个结构的变形,可取得较好的空间刚度,圆环近似地可按匀质刚度考虑。另外在错缝拼装条件下,纵缝和环缝呈丁字形式相交,而通缝拼装时则呈十字形式相交,在接缝防水上丁字缝比十字缝较易处理。故错缝拼装是较优的拼装衬砌方案,应创造条件予以采用。但当管片制作精度不够高时,采用错缝拼装形式容易使管片在盾构推进过程中被顶裂,甚至顶碎。在某些场合,例如需要拆除管片后修建旁侧通道或某些特殊需要时,则衬砌环常采用通缝型式,以便于结构处理。

第七节  盾构施工方案中的土工问题

一.盾构掘进工作面的稳定问题

1. 网格式半挤压盾构

在延安东路北线、穿越黄埔江和两岸建筑群隧道中应用。外径11300。

切口环前全断面安装有网格和封板,网格由网格梁组成。网格口装有封板,封板可以装卸,以便根据土层条件调节开挖面积。

随着盾构的推进,正面土体被切入网格,网格既起到切割大块土体的作用,有起到支护和稳定正面土体的作用。

根据封板闸门上的土压力盒所测得的压力值,可以调节盾构推进速度并灵活启闭闸门开口面积,控制出土量和正面土压力,起到一定的土压平衡作用,有助于控制地表变形。

盾构的推力应大于正面阻力和盾壳四周的摩擦力之和。

正面阻力=平均值p×盾壳截面积

p一般大于静止土压力、小于被动土压力

2. 泥水平衡盾构

在延安东路复线、穿越黄埔江和两岸建筑群隧道中应用。外径11220。

在支撑环前面的密封舱中,注入适当压力的泥浆使其在开挖面形成泥膜,支撑正面土体,并由安装在正面的大刀盘切削土体表层泥膜,搅拌成的高密度泥浆由排泥泵及管道输送至地面处理,整个过程通过建立在地面的中央控制室内的泥水平衡制动控制系统统一管理。

在泥水平衡的理论中,泥膜的形成是至关重要的。当泥水压力大于地下水压力时,泥水按达西定律渗入土壤,形成与土壤间隙成一定比例的悬浮颗粒,在阻塞和架桥效应的作用下,在土壤与泥水的接触表面形成泥膜。

随着时间的增加,泥膜的厚度不断增加,渗透抵抗力逐渐增强,当泥膜抵抗力远大于正面土压力时,产生泥水平衡效果。

3. 土压平衡盾构

通过土舱压力设定值p的调节来平衡前方土体。理论上一般将p值设定为静止土压力值。但为了控制地面沉降量,设定值p一般略大于静止土压力p0。这样一来盾构推进时前方土体略呈微台之势,盾构过后沉降量可以减小些。

由于盾构处于不断的前进之中,所以盾构推进力与开挖面土体之间处于动态平衡状态。

以土压平衡盾构为例,由于土压平衡盾构靠密封舱内土体的压力与前方土体平衡,所以其维持动态平衡主要靠两方面:

(1) 保持推进速度,调整排土量;

(2) 根据出土螺旋输送机的正常工作范围,调整推进速度。

二.盾构进出工作井时的土工问题

问题:进出工作井的洞门都比盾壳外直径大,对于流塑状软土,会沿着空隙涌入。造成的问题是,由于水土流失,地表下沉;盾构下半部土体受到扰动,承载力降低,造成盾构出洞时头部下倾。

盾构出工作井地表沉降的主要原因是洞口暴露的加固土体发生移动,洞圈周围泥水流失以及盾构土舱土压力未与原地层土压平衡等。

盾构出工作井地表沉降的主要原因是准备进洞过程中纠偏引起上方土体下沉及盾尾临时封门时同步注浆效果不佳。

措施:

地层加固:分层劈裂注浆、搅拌桩等;

降水:提高土体的强度;

盾壳与井体间的密封堵漏:减少地层损失;

施工工艺:减少对地层的扰动。

三.掘进过程中的土工问题

主要是地表沉降及土体变形。

1.常规变形

盾构推进过程中地表沉降及土体变形见下图。

图1-66、1-69、1-80、1-86。

通过大量观测和地层应力状态分析,从盾构尚未到达某点,到盾构通过、盾尾脱离以及在以后一个相当长的时间内,地层均会产生变形。图1-69为上海某隧道轴线顶上地表点在盾构施工过程中的变位曲线。变位可以分成四个阶段:前期、盾构通过、盾尾脱离、及后续变位。

表:各施工阶段变位机理

阶段

变位原因

地层状态的变化

变化类型

下沉量百分比

(上海经验)

前期下沉

开挖面坍塌,过量出土

地层应力释放,扰动

弹塑性变形

35%

前期隆起

挤压地层,出土过少

推力超过静止土压力

弹塑性变形

盾构通过时下沉

盾构对地层挤压、剪切

扰动

剪切压密

20%

盾尾脱离后下沉

盾尾空隙

地层应力释放

弹塑性变形

30%

后续下沉

孔隙水,扰动后固结,管片变形

固结、蠕变

10%

2.浅覆土情况

(1) 盾构壳体可能背土前进,地表隆起现象比较严重。随着埋深的增加,隆起范围扩大,隆起值减小。

(2) 盾构容易上浮。此时只有强迫盾构头部向下压低推进,以保持隧道的设计高程。但这样一来盾尾容易抬高,造成隧道衬砌管片拼装后成为踏步。

3.非均质土层情况

在土质条件互层情况下,会造成盾构正面阻力分布不均匀,影响盾构姿态。

4. 盾构同向、对向推进

地铁左右线净距一般在5-10米之间,两盾构同向或对向推进时,盾构对地层的扰动相互影响,相互影响系数比较难确定。

5. 盾构曲线推进

由于不断的纠偏导致对周围环境扰动的增大。

6. 砂土中推进

对网格式盾构要防止流砂。

对土压平衡式盾构,要验算螺旋出土器出口的渗流力,防止出口砂液化。

四.盾构周边环境控制及信息化施工

1. 地表沉降和土体变形原因分析

(1) 盾构正面压力平衡状态不理想,引起的地层损失(或负地层损失);

(2) 衬砌环拖出盾尾时,隧道和地层间的建筑空隙若不及时充填,上层土体就会坍塌,产生地层损失;

(3) 盾构的不断纠偏引起的实际空隙大于理论计算;

(4) 盾构停顿或管片拼装期间,千斤顶液压止锁装置不好导致盾构后退;

(5) 盾构推进时对土体的剪切破坏;

(6) 盾构推进过程中对土体的扰动,导致土体的主、次固结。

2. 地表沉降预测

目前没有好的预测方法。

由于地层损失引起的地表沉降所占比例较大,对该沉降,有较有名的经验公式,

wps3E37.tmp

即Peck公式:

式中:S(x):横向、距离隧道中心线x 处的沉降量(m);

V1:地层损失量(m3/m);

i:沉降槽宽度系数;

假定:(1)地层损失在隧道长度上均匀分布;

(2)地面沉降在横向为正态曲线分布;

(3)施工引起的地面沉降是在不排条件下发生的,即,沉降槽的体积与地层损失相等。

3. 控制措施(相对于原因)

4. 信息化施工

(1) 试验段推进:根据实测数据对盾构推进、拼装、停止等状态进行分段监测,掌握规律。

(2) 提高盾构操作水平,不断优化盾构施工的技术参数:正面压力、推进速度、纠偏控制等;

(3) 及时进行同步注浆,及同步注浆量、注浆压力的确定;

(4) 加强监控量测;

(5) 跟踪注浆。

五.土体的流动性

在地下水动水压作用下,由隧道下卧土层向隧道内漏入的水土愈多,则隧道因之而产生的纵向弯曲愈严重,隧道底部环向裂缝愈大,水土流失的增加与裂缝的加宽,恶性循环地发展,便导致隧道塌坏。从国内外隧道结构塌坏的实例看,这往往是发生隧道塌坏事故的最主要原因。如上海金山海水引水工程中,由于隧道底部水土流失,导致破坏性纵向沉陷及破坏性横向受力状态,如图15所示。在对密西根软土隧道破坏的事故调查研究中,曾明确指出:在细砂至中粗砂、粉砂层中,土粒在1.372×l04Pa的水压下即可能通过0.25mm的裂缝流入隧道。当隧道处于多个含水层中,要对隧道穿过的每个含水层,或部分穿过含水层的水压、土体颗粒组成做出可靠的试验结果。要取足够数量的试样进行颗粒分析试验,以得出实际上土体颗粒组成的变化情况。对于厚度>25cm的饱和夹砂层,也应取土样分析其土体颗粒组成,并进行土体在一定动水压力作用下的流动性试验。存在水土流失条件的地方,要对隧道防水措施以及防止内衬收缩裂缝提出严格限制。

wps3E38.tmp

图 15

六.隧道下卧层土体的变形

    根据地质和工程实测资料,分析隧遣下卧层的土体变形,估计隧道的不均匀沉降,是隧道纵横断面结构和防水设计中的重要课题。由于隧道长度与直径之比总是相当大,而且现在隧道衬砌纵向接头中基本采用弹性防水材料,因而具有柔性。所以在施工阶段可以认为隧道各衬砌环是随下卧土层的沉降而沉降。在基本运用阶段,即使隧道内增加内部结构,使隧道纵向刚度有所增加,但隧道仍然随下卧层的长期不均匀沉降,而发生纵向变形。

(注:此文献转载)



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